Map Sources:


    Old Maps of Poland and Central Europe   (Polish/English/German)

          A very accessible collection, with thousands of topographic maps at various scales.

    National Library of Poland   (Polish/English)    

          One can select English in the upper right corner of the page. Choose Public Collections from the dropdown at the upper left to access various

          map collections, images of towns/shtetls and Jewish content such as synagogues in Poland, Yiddish literature, and other forms of Jewish and

          Hebrew literature. To search for maps more specifically choose Objects from the dropdown menu as above and adjust settings in the "Show filters"

          menu by first selecting "Mapy i Atlasy" from (13) Categories (filters will be in Polish until you "translate" from the right click Chrome menu).

          For topographic maps, select this type in the "Keywords" filter option. Austro-Hungarian Spezialkarte topographic maps 1:75,000 can be found here;

          Karte des westlichen Russlands, and Karte des Deutschen Reiches maps can be found here. Once a map is opened a download button is provided

          in the right side panel.

   Digitalizace Univerzity Karlovy  (Digital Library of Charles University)     

          Open with the Chrome browser and use the right click menu to translate from the Czech as needed. Search using the filters menu. 

   Repozytorium Cyfrowe Instytutów Naukowych (Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes)  

   Biblioteka Cyfrowa Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego (University of Wroclaw Digital Library)  (Hungarian lang.)

          Some unusual maps not found elsewhere. Open with Chrome browser and use the right click menu to translate.

   David Rumsey Historical Map Collection   

          An extraordinary collection and website. Download of various file sizes for each image is generously provided.

   University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Digital Map Collection

   The Third Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Army

   Historical Maps of the Habsburg Empir

          Individual sheets are joined into a huge map of Europe in a one of a kind site. Individual sections must be purchased in order to download.

   Universitat Wien Digital Map Collection

   New York Public Library Digital Collections

   Norman B. Levanthal Map and Education Center

   Bibliothèque national de France: Gallica

   Berkeley Library Digital Collection: Map and Air Photo Collection



History Sources:


     Jewish Encyclopedias


         Yivo Encyclopedia of the Jews in Eastern Europe

           Jewish Virtual Library

           Jewish Encyclopedia  (Originally published 1901-1906 in 12 volumes)

           Brockhaus Efron Jewish Encyclopedia  (1906-1913; Russian)

              Visit using Chrome browser and translate with the right click menu. To search the Encyclopedia use Google Translate separately

              to create search terms in Russian. Enter in the search box at upper right; right click and translate the results page. Open results 

              from the EEBE (Encyclopedia Evreiskaia Brockhaus Efron). 

              Here are links on settlementscities, and an article on the shtetl as examples. There are hundreds of relevant pages available.

              The DeepL translator is a good alternative to the Google Translator which renders certain terms inaccurately. Copy and paste the

               original text into the DeepL window. The free online version accommodates 3000 words per window.

           Electronic Jewish Encyclopedia  (Current from Israel; Russian)

              Visit using Chrome and translate. Use Google Translate to create search terms. This is a contemporary project. 

          ANU: Museum of the Jewish People  (Hebrew/English)

               The Jewish Community of Russia


     Jewish Communities/Towns/Shtetls


         The Virtual Shtetl

           History of Jewish Communities in Ukraine

           Jews in East Prussia

           Remembering Litvaks

           JewishGen Yizkor Books

           Jewish cemeteries in Poland


     Blogs and miscellaneous sources


              The author has taken hundreds of photos of the remains of Jewish life in Eastern Europe. Award winning.

          Peoples of the Red Book of the Russian Empire

               Chronicles nationalities within the Russian Federation that have become extinct or are threatened with extinction. Central Asian,

               Crimean and Georgian Jews, Karaim and Mountain Jews are included.

         odessasecrets: the 1905 pogrom

               Contains testimony from a traveler leaving the Russian Empire who is temporarily housed in Brody as well as other events.



    Border Changes: Partitions of Poland-Lithuania and Russian Territorial Reform


          Chronology of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1772 (Russian)

                Open in Chrome and right click to translate as needed.

           Warsaw Treaty of 1772  (Russian)

           Petersburg convention between Russia and Austria after the first partition of Poland  (Russian)

           Petersburg convention between Russia and Prussia after the first partition of Poland  (Russian)

           Documents on the partitions of Poland-Lithuania  (Russian)

           Governorates of the Russian Empire

           Changes in the Administrative Territorial Division of the Russian Empire over the last 300 years  (Russian)

           Formation of the Territory of the Russian Empire  (Russian)

           Regions of the Russian Empire  (Russian)


                 A history of the geographic unit.