Late 19th C. - Early 20th C. Topographic



Военно–Топографичесой Карты Eвропейской Россйи


Military Topographic Maps of European Russia  (MTMER)


A set of Cyrillic alphabet, monochrome maps from mid-nineteenth through early twentieth century at the scale of 1:126,000. Provincial boundaries are visible on many editions. Transport routes, rail stations, cemeteries, churches, estates and other cultural symbols are prominent. Many German transliterated editions from the WWI era are included in this collection as well as a few post-WWI colored (Cyrillic) editions. The Pale of Settlement boundary has been added to the index image as well as some Jewish communities outside this limit, spotted in red.

In the Library of Congress Catalog



Двухверстовая карта западного пограничного пространства



Two-verst map of the West Borderland Territory (Russia)


A set of maps (scale 1:84,000) spanning the late Tsarist to early Soviet period.

This series employs contour lines to represent reilef unlike the older style of hacures, used in the Austrian Spezialkarte and MTMER above. Later editiions are variously colored, most notably with blue representing water features. Screenshots of various editions can be viewed here:

Area of coverage is limited to the western half of the Pale of Settlement, Congress Poland and the Baltic gubernia. Gubernia of the Pale have been colored-in on the original monochrome index map. On the maps, symbols for Jewish cemeteries are common and those for synagogues distinct, where included. In Volozhin itself, (section XV-21) two synagogues are visible, a rarety on these images. Gubernia boundaries are included on pre-revolution issues. Some consider this set the original survey from which KdwR was prepared by the Prussian army. An extensive glossary is offered to help viewers interpret Cyrillic abbreviations found on the maps. 

In the Library of Congress Catalog



Karte des westlichen Russlands (KdwR)

Topographic maps published by the Prussian military at the turn of the 20th century (scale=1:100,000). The set is based on Russian, and Austrian maps and is not an original survey. All of Congress Poland is included, plus Kowno, Courland, Grodno, most of Wilna, and part of Witebsk, Minsk, and Wolynia gubernias. Spezialkarte der osterreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie (1:75,000) sheets cover some of Galicia at the southern limit of the index and Karte des Deutschen Reiches  (1:100,000) fills in the west side of sheets along the boundary with Prussia. This latter set of maps can be viewed at the David Rumsey site here.

In the Library of Congress Catalog:

The National Library of Poland




Spezialkarte der österreichisch-ungarischen  Monarchie

A set of monochrome topographic maps, scale 1:75,000 published by the Austrian military primarily between 1876 and 1918.  Relief is depicted by the use of older style hachures and spot heights.  Included here are sections of Austrian Galicia and Bukovina, Bohemia-Moravia and the Kingdom of Hungary. Maps occasionally contain symbols for Jewish infrastructure, namely synagogues and cemeteries. Sheets with inter-war (Czechoslovak) revisions are also found on pages with the Bohemia-Moravia sheets. Otherwise, tavern symbols are ubiquitous. More extensive collections can be found at:

In the Library of Congress catalog

At the Vienna St. Library

At the Polish National Library

At the New York Public Library

At Digitalice Univerzity Karlovy


Military Topographic Maps of Romania

A colored set created by the Serviciul Geografic al Armatei between 1908 and 1929. Scale 1:100,000. A limited legend is included at the bottom of each sheet in Romanian, with German translation. Sections here cover pre-WWI Romania.

Additional sheets can be found at and here: