Late 18th-Early 19th C. Topographic

Many of the maps in this tab originated shortly after the last Partition of Poland in 1795. We might think of them as "proto" topographic since the display of relief is limited by use of shading and/or hachures. Later around the turn of the 19th century contour lines and spot heights (numerical elevations) largely replaced hachures in issues like the Karte des westlichen Russlands and Karte des Deutschen Reiches. However, the increased accuracy and detail of symbols in the series here make them essentially topographic. Symbols relating to Jewish life are scant in these images. 



Karte eines Theils von Neu oder West Gallicien welcher

die Woywodschaften Sendomier nebst einem Theil von Alt Gallicien

D.G. Reymann (1797)


Scale= 1:185,000


A small symbol legend is found along the upper left margin of the map.


From the Jagiellonian Digital Library 



Carte von West Galizien

A.M. von Heldensfeld  (1808)


Scale= 1:172,800



Courtesy of the David Rumsey Collection

Increasing clarity here:



Karte von Ost Preussen nebst Preussisch Litthauen

und West Preussen nebst dem Netzdistrict 

F.L. von Schroetter (1796-1802)


Scale= 1:150,000


Index image


A set of 25 maps completed between 1802 and 1812. Several types of terrain are depicted and some topographic relief is shown by the use of hachures. A symbol legend is found on sheet II-Schakuhnen. Sheet XXIII-Niedenburg contains an inset of Konigsberg, the capital of East Prussia. Sheet VIII-Baldenburg contains an inset of the city of Danzig.




A composite courtesy of the David Rumsey collection.

Neu Ost Preussen-Herztogthums Warschau

nebst dem Russischen District

D.F. Sotzman (1806-1808)


Scale= 1:150,000


Index image in section IV-Szczuczyn


Courtesy of the Library of Congress and

Topographisch-militairischer Atlas von Schlesien 

Verlag des Geographischen Instituts Weimar  (1809)


Scale= 1: 200,000


Title sheet contains a legend in German and French


Source: Wroclaw University Digital Library

Uibersichts Karte von Galizien 

Tranquillo Mollo (1820)


Scale = 1:145,000


Index image


Courtesy of the Library of Congress

Семитопографическая Карта Иностраннымъ Владѣніямъ

по Западной Границѣ Россійской Имперіи

     (Semitopograficeskaja Karta Innostrannym Vladeniam po Zapadnoj
      Granice Rossijskoj Imperii)

Semi-topographical map of Foreign Territories along the Western Borders of the Russian Empire     Karl Oppermann (1811-1820) 




Index image


Title sheet at uppermost right of index contains a symbol legend, regional color key and a list of Polish wojwodstwo and oblasti (provinces and regions or counties). Sheets are variously joined. 



      Topografičeskaâ karta Carstva Pol'skago

Topographic Maps of the Kingdom of Poland  

Karol Richter  (1839)


Scale= 1:126,000


Index image


Title sheet and index contain a few inscriptions in Cyrillic but maps are Romanized. Section II-8 Slawkow contains a legend in Polish, Russian

and French.




Late 19th C.-Early 20th C. Topographic

Karte des westlichen Russlands (KdwR)


Topographic maps published by the Prussian military at the turn of the 20th century (scale=1:100,000). The set is based on Russian, and Austrian maps and is not an original survey. All of Congress Poland is included, plus Kowno, Courland, Grodno, most of Wilna, and part of Witebsk, Minsk, and Wolynia gubernias. Spezialkarte der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie (1:75,000) sheets cover some of Galicia at the southern limit of the index and Karte des Deutschen Reiches (1:100,000) fills in the west side of sheets along the boundary with Prussia. This latter set of maps can be viewed at the David Rumsey site:


In the Library of Congress Catalog:




Spezialkarte der österreichisch-ungarischen  Monarchie


A set of monochrome topographic maps at the scale of 1:75,000 published by the Austrian military primarily between 1876 and 1918. Relief is depicted by the use of (older style) hachures and spot heights. Included here are sections of Austrian Galicia and Bukovina. Maps are devoid of symbols for Jewish infrastructure, however symbols for synagogues (not included in the legend) appear in a few later issues. Tavern symbols are ubiquitous. A more extensive set can be found at:


In the Library of Congress catalog:

Военно–Топографичесой Карты Eвропейской Россйи


Military Topographic Maps of European Russia  (MTMER)


A set of Cyrillic alphabet, monochrome maps from mid-nineteenth through early twentieth century at the scale of 1:126,000. Provincial boundaries are visible on many editions. Transport routes, rail stations, cemeteries, churches, estates and other cultural symbols are prominent. Cyrillic originals are from various time periods which can be viewed here: Many German transliterated editions from the WWI era are included in this collection as well as a few post-WWI colored (Cyrillic) editions. The Pale of Settlement boundary has been added to the index image as well as some Jewish communities outside this limit, spotted in red.




Двухверстовая карта западного пограничного пространства


Two-verst map of the West Borderland Territory (Russia)


A set of maps (scale 1:84,000) spanning the late Tsarist to early Soviet period. This series employs contour lines to represent reilef unlike the older style of hacures used in the Austrian Spezialkarte and MTMER above. Later editiions are variously colored, most notably with blue representing water features. Screenshots of various editions can be viewed here:

Area of coverage is limited to the western half of the Pale of Settlement, Congress Poland and the Baltic gubernia. Gubernia of the Pale have been colored-in on the original monochrome index map. On the maps, symbols for Jewish cemeteries are common and those for synagogues distinct, where included. In Volozhin itself, (section XV-21) two synagogues are visible, a rarety on these images. Gubernia boundaries are included on pre-revolution issues.

Some consider this set the original survey from which KdwR was prepared by the Prussian army. An extensive glossary is offered to help viewers interpret Cyrillic abbreviations found on the maps. 


In the Library of Congress Catalog:


Full screen active index

Provincial Maps & Atlases


Maps in this section cover the provinces of Central and Eastern Europe from the late 18th through the early 20th centuries. Many links to encyclopedia articles have been placed at the page of the Geographic Atlas of The Russian Empire, below.

In the Survey of the Russian Empire from 1792, are found descriptions of provincial boundaries, terrain and resources, with a listing of principal towns. Here is a Russian Gazetteer and Guide from 1919 with narrative information on geographical divisions, natural resources, industries and  populations of the provinces and over 300 towns and cities.


Woiwodztwa of the Polish Commonwealth (1784-1795)

Atlas des Roiaumes de Galicie et de Lodomerie (1790)

Atlas of the Western Russian Empire (1787)

Atlas of the Russian Empire (1792)

Atlas of the Russian Empire (1794)

Atlas of the Russian Empire (1800)

Atlas of the Russian Empire (1802)

Geographic Atlas of the Russian Empire, Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Finland (1821)

Colberg Atlas of Congress Poland (1826)

Bansemer Atlas of Poland-Lithuania (1837)

Die europaisch-russischen Grenzlander (1856)

Letts's Popular Atlas of Russia (1883)

Stielers Handatlas (1891)

Miscellaneous Guberniia Maps

Regional Maps of Eastern Europe


Maps in this section are small in scale, including portions or all of specific countries in Central/Eastern Europe. Most of the maps offered here have been gathered from on-line sources. 


The Russo-Turkish Wars

The Partitions of Poland-Lithuania

The Duchy of Warsaw

European Russia

Area Maps of Western Russia

East Prussia



The Congress Kingdom of Poland

Prussia-Posen-Congress Poland


Galicia, Bukovina

Bohemia, Moravia

Romania, Moldova & Balkan states


Inter-War Poland

Intermediate Scale series Maps: 1812-1915

Carte de la Russie Européenne

Map of European Russia


Scale 1:500,000



Index image with title and symbol legend at upper left.


    Специальная карты Европейской России

     Spetsial'noj karty Evropejskoj Rossii
     Special maps of European Russia   I. Strelbitsky 1865-1915
     Scale 1:420,000. 





From the Library of Congress catalog:



World War 1 era, colored maps  by  the Austrian military at the scale of 1:400,000.  Types of terrain are distinguished and relief is depicted by shading and some spot heights. Thus these maps are mildly topographic. Most of European Russia is included except the Baltic region. National and provincial boundaries are present, however these regions are not specifically named. Community population information is given via several symbols. Some military symbols are included as well as navigation information on the passability of waterways. Rail routes are prominent. This set extends farther east than the Pale of Settlement boundary. Sheets for the northern Pale are lacking.

(Old) Library of Congress Catalog no. G6965 s400 .A9


Sources: RCIN  and The Library of Congress.